Negative reinforcement (R-)
Removing something the animal will work to avoid to strengthen (increase the frequency of) a behavior. Heeling is traditionally taught through R-. The animal receives a A euphemis...A euphemis... A euphemism for the application of a physical aversive. The aversive is intended to communicate that the dog did something wrong. In some cases, the trainer then guides the dog through the desired behavior. The application of an aversive followed by desired behavior is considered instructive, thus the euphemism ”A euphemis....” when he walks anywhere except in heel position. Walking in heel position increases, because that is the only “safe” place—because the threat of A euphemis... is removed by walking there. The key to R- is that an aversive must first be applied or threatened in order for it to be removed.