The process of associating a neutral stimulusStimulus A change in the environment. If the stimulus has no effect on the animal, it is a neutral stimulus. A stimulus that stands out in the environment, that the animal notices more than other environmental stimuli, is a salient stimulus. A stimulus that causes a change of state in the animal, that causes him to perform a specific behavior, for example, is a discriminative stimulus. with an involuntary response until the stimulus elicits the response. A famous example was the discovery by Ivan Pavlov: dogs drooled when they heard a bell that was previously paired with food. Also called classical conditioningClassical conditioning The process of associating a neutral stimulus with an involuntary response until the stimulus elicits the response.